Log In

Advanced Linguistics: Structure from Sounds to Discourse

Serena W, PhD
Average rating:5.0Number of reviews:(15)
A continuation of linguistics, the exploration of phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of human language

Class experience

US Grade 8 - 11
Advanced Level
This class is taught in English.
Students will learn to distinguish language varieties and dialects.
Students will gain insight into languages they speak and hear around them.
Students will understand how language contact shapes languages.
Students will appreciate linguistic and cultural diversity.
Students will learn the sociocultural context of the languages spoken in the United States.
Students will reinforce concepts learned in structural linguistics, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
Students will learn to describe systematic variation in dialects of the same language.
PhD Linguistics, specializing in sociolinguistics
K-12 Secondary Teaching degree
2 years experience teaching linguistics courses on Outschool to high school students
Homework Offered
Assessments Offered
There is no formal assessment, but students will receive informal and supportive feedback as they work through the linguistic problems for each language.
Grades Offered
A PDF of the problems we will be working on will be sent ahead of each class.
We will refer to the International Phonetic Association's consonants and vowels of human language, the World Atlas of Linguistic Structures, and we will make use of an online keyboard for phonetic transcription (https://ipa.typeit.org/full/).

Shoshoni Source Material:
Clark, Ella E., and Margot Edmonds. 1979. Sacagawea of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Criswell, Elijah Harry. 1940. Lewis and Clark: Linguistic pioneers. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Crum, Beverly, Earl Crum, and Jon P. Dayley. 2001. Newe Hupia: Shoshoni poetry songs. Logan: Utah State University Press.
Crum, Beverly, and Jon P. Dayley. 1993. Western Shoshoni grammar. Occasional Papers and Monographs in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics 1. Boise, ID: Boise State University, Department of Anthropology.
Crum, Beverly, and Jon P. Dayley. 1997. Shoshoni texts. Occasional Papers and Monographs in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics 2. Boise, ID: Boise State University, Department of Anthropology.
Di Paolo, Marianna, and Robert D. Sykes. 2010. Acoustic evidence for a vowel shift in Shoshoni. Presented at the Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, January 2010.
Elzinga, Dirk. 1999. The consonants of Gosiute. PhD diss., University of Arizona.
Fisher, William, ed. 1812. New travels among the Indians of North America: Being a compilation, taken partly from the communications already published, of Lewis and Clark, to the President of the United States, and partly from other authors who travelled among the various tribes of Indians . . .with a dictionary of the tongue [Cree]. Philadelphia: J. Sharan.
Gould, Drusilla, and Christopher Loether. 2002. An introduction to the Shoshoni language. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Gould, Drusilla, and Christopher Loether. n.d. Shoshoni on-line dictionary. http://shoshonidictionary.com/shoshonidictionary.asp
Hage, Per, and Wick R. Miller. 1976. ‘Eagle’ = ‘bird’: A note on the structure and evolution of Shoshoni ethnoornithological nomenclature. American Ethnologist 3.3: 481–488.
Karttunen, Frances. 1994. Between worlds: Interpreters, guides, and survivors. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Lewis, Meriwether, 1774–1809 (2001). Original journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Vol. 1, Parts 1–2. Ed. Reuben Gold Thwaites. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning. Electronic resource. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/utah/Doc?id=10015046
“Lewis and Clark History: Sacagawea ~ Sacajawea ~ Sakakawea.” LewisAndClarkTrail.com. http://lewisandclarktrail.com/sacajawea.htm
McLaughlin, John E. 2012. Shoshoni grammar. Languages of the World/Materials, no. 488. Munich: LinCom Europa.
Miller, Wick R. 1970. Western Shoshoni dialects. In Earl H. Swanson Jr., ed., Languages and cultures of western North America: Essays in honor of Sven S. Liljeblad, 17–36. Pocatello: Idaho State University.
Miller, Wick R. 1972. Newe Natekwinappeh: Shoshoni stories and dictionary. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 94. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Miller, Wick R. 1996. Sketch of Shoshone, a Uto-Aztecan language. In William C. Sturtevant, ed., Handbook of American Indians, vol. 17, 693–720, Ives Goddard, ed., Languages. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
“Sacagawea’s Baby—Jean Baptiste Charbonneau.” n.d. Retrieved from LewisAndClarkTrail.com. http://lewisandclarktrail.com/sacagaweasbaby.htm
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. n.d. “Lewis & Clark: Mapping the West.” http://www.mnh.si.edu/education/lc/lcmapping/
Tidzump, M. 1970. Shoshone thesaurus. Grand Forks, ND: Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota.
Vander, Judith. 1997. Shoshone Ghost Dance religion: Poetry songs and Great Basin context. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Jamaican Creole Source Material:
Bailey, Beryl Loftman. 1966. Jamaican Creole syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bilby, Kenneth. 1983. How the “older heads” talk: A Jamaican Maroon spirit possession language. Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 57.1–2: 37–88.
Cassidy, Frederic G. 1961. Jamaica talk: Three hundred years of the English language in Jamaica. London: MacMillan.
Cassidy, Frederic G., and Robert B. Le Page, eds. 1967 (1980, 2nd ed.). Dictionary of Jamaican English. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, Carolyn. n.d. Jamaica Woman Tongue [blog using Jamaican Creole]. http://carolynjoycooper.wordpress.com/
DeCamp, David. 1971.Towards a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum. In Dell Hymes, ed., Pidginization and creolization of languages, 349–370. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Edwards,Viv. 1986. Language in a black community. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Jamaican Language Unit. 2001. Spelling Jamaican the Jamaican way. Teaching materials on Jamaican Creole orthography. Kingston, JA: University of the West Indies at Mona. http://www.mona.uwi.edu/dllp/jlu/documents/spelling-jamaican-the-jamaican-way-Handout.pdf
Patrick, Peter L. 1997. Style and register in Jamaican Patwa. In Edgar W. Schneider, ed., Englishes around the world: Studies in honour of Manfred Görlach. Vol. 2, Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Australasia, 41–56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Patrick, Peter L. 1999. Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the mesolect. Varieties of English Around the World G17. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Patrick, Peter L. 2004. Jamaican Creole: Morphology and syntax. In Bernd Kortmann, Edgar W. Schneider, Clive Upton, Rajend Mesthrie, and Kate Burridge, eds., A handbook of varieties of English. Vol. 2, Morphology and syntax, 407–438. Topics in English
Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Pollard,Velma. 1994. Dread talk:The language of Rastafari. Kingston, JA: Canoe Press.
Sebba, Mark. 1993. London Jamaican: Language systems in interaction. London: Longman.
Sutcliffe, David. 1982. British Black English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Spanish Source Material:
Amastae, Jon, and Lucía Elías-Olivares, eds. 1982. Spanish in the United States: Sociolinguistic aspects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cobos, Ruben. 1983. A dictionary of New Mexico and southern Colorado Spanish. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press.
Duran, Richard P., ed. 1981. Latino language and communicative behavior. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Elías-Olivares, Lucía, ed. 1983. Spanish in the U.S. setting: Beyond the Southwest. Rossylyn, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
Elías-Olivares, Lucía, Elizabeth A. Leone, René Cisneros, and John Gutierrez. 1985. Spanish language use and public life in the USA. The Hague: Mouton.
Espinosa, Aurelio M. 1909. Studies in New Mexican Spanish, part I: Phonology. Biblioteca de Dialectología Hispanoamericana 1, ed. Amado Alonso and Angel Rosenblat (1930). Buenos Aires: Instituto de Filología.
Fuentes, Dagoberto, and José A. López. 1974. Barrio language dictionary: First dictionary of Caló. La Puente, CA: El Barrio Publications.
Galván, Roberto A., and Richard V. Teschner. 1994. El diccionario del español chicano/The dictionary of Chicano Spanish. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.
Hernández-Chávez, Eduardo, Anthony F. Beltramo, and Andrew D. Cohen. 1975. El lenguaje de los chicanos. Arlington,VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Peñalosa, Fernando. 1980. Chicano sociolinguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Sánchez, Rosaura. 1994. Chicano discourse: Socio-historic perspectives. Houston, TX: Arte Público [Rowley, MA: Newbury House].
Teschner, Richard V., Garland D. Bills, and Jerry R. Craddock. 1975. Spanish and English of United States Hispanos: A critical, annotated, linguistic bibliography. Arlington,VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Thomason, Sarah G. 2001. Language contact: An introduction. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Valdés, Guadalupe. 1982 [1976]. Social interaction and code-switching patterns: A case study of Spanish/English alternation. In Jon Amastae and Lucía Elías-Olivares, eds., Spanish in the United States: Sociolinguistic aspects, 209–229. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bailey, Benjamin. 2002. Language, race, and negotiation of identity: A study of Dominican Americans. New York: LFP Scholarly Publications.
Bartlett, Lesley, and Ofelia García. 2011. Additive schooling in subtractive times: Bilingual education and Dominican immigrant youth in the Heights. Nashville, TN:Vanderbilt University Press.
Bullock, Barbara E., and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2009. Reconsidering Dominican Spanish: Data from the rural Cibao. Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana 14: 49–73.
Bullock, Barbara E., and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2010. Correcting the record on Dominican [s]-hypercorrection. In S. Colina, A. Olarrea, and A. Carvalho, eds., Romance linguistics 2009, 15–24. New York: John Benjamins.
Bullock, Barbara E., and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. Forthcoming. From Trujillo to the terremoto: The effects of language ideologies on the language attitudes of the rural poor of the northern Dominican border. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.
Diaz, Junot. 2007. The brief wondrous life of Oscar Wao. New York: Riverhead Books. 
Henríquez-Ureña, Pedro. 1940. El español en Santa Domingo. Buenos Aires: Biblioteca de Dialectología Hispanomericana V.
Hudson, R.A. 1980. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jensen, Leif, Jeffrey H. Cohen, Almeida Jacqueline Toribio, Gordon DeJong, and Leila
Rodríguez. 2006. Ethnic identities, language and economic outcomes among Dominicans in a new destination. Social Science Quarterly 87: 1088–1099.
Jiménez Sabater, Max A. 1975. Más datos sobre el español de la República Dominicana. Santo Domingo: Ediciones Intec.
Levitt, Peggy. 2001. The transnational villagers. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lipski, John. 1994. Latin American Spanish. New York: Longman Linguistics Library.
Núñez Cedeño, Rafael. 2003. Double plurals in Dominican: A morpho-pragmatic account. In P. Kempchinsky and C. Piñeros, eds., Theory, practice, and acquisition: Papers from the 6th Hispanic Linguistic Symposium and the 5th Conference on the Acquisition of
Spanish, 68–82. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Núñez Cedeño, Rafael. 2008. The /-e/ in popular Dominican Spanish: An expressive marker not a double plural. Spanish in Context 5: 196–223.
Ortiz López, Luis. 2011. Spanish in contact with Haitian Creole. In M. Diaz Campos, ed., The handbook of Hispanic sociolinguistics, 855–904. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Otheguy, Ricardo, Ana Celia Zentella, and David Livert. 2007. Language and dialect contact in Spanish in New York: Toward the formation of a speech community. Language 83: 770–802.
Paulino, Edward. 2005. Erasing the Kreyol from the margins of the Dominican Republic: The pre- and post-nationalization project of the border, 1930–1945. Wadabagei: A Journal of the Caribbean and Its Diaspora 8: 39–75.
Pita, Marianne D., and Sharon Utakis. 2002. Educational policy for the transnational Dominican community. Journal of Language, Identity and Education 1.4: 317–328.
Average rating:5.0Number of reviews:(15)
I'm Serena, a perennial student. I've got 3 masters degrees, 2 bachelors degrees, and a doctorate! I also have owned 2 companies and my own music studio and lived all over the US. I truly believe I learn more by teaching. I specialize in... 
Group Class


weekly or $200 for 6 classes
2x per week, 3 weeks
45 min

Completed by 1 learner
Live video meetings
Ages: 13-18
3-6 learners per class

SafetyPrivacyCA PrivacyLearner PrivacyTerms
Outschool International
Get The App
Download on the App StoreGet it on Google Play
© 2024 Outschool